Friday, March 20, 2020
Prehistoric Homo Essays - Human Evolution, Humans, Free Essays Prehistoric Homo sapiens not only made and used stone tools, they also specialized them and made a variety of smaller, more complex, refined and specialized tools including composite stone tools, fishhooks and harpoons, bows and arrows, spear throwers and sewing needles. For millions of years all humans, early and modern alike, had to find their own food. They spent a large part of each day gathering plants and hunting or scavenging animals. By 164,000 years ago modern humans were collecting and cooking shellfish and by 90,000 years ago modern humans had begun making special fishing tools. Then, within just the past 12,000 years, our species, Homo sapiens, made the transition to producing food and changing our surroundings. Humans found they could control the growth and breeding of certain plants and animals. This discovery led to farming and herding animals, activities that transformed Earths natural landscapesfirst locally, then globally. As humans invested more time in producing food, they settled down. Villages became towns, and towns became cities. With more food available, the human population began to increase dramatically. Our species had been so successful that it has inadvertently created a turning point in the history of life on Earth. Modern humans evolved a unique combination of physical and behavioral characteristics, many of which other early human species also possessed, though not to the same degree. The complex brains of modern humans enabled them to interact with each other and with their surroundings in new and different ways. As the environment became more unpredictable, bigger brains helped our ancestors survive. They made specialized tools, and use tools to make other tools, as described above; they ate a variety of animal and plant foods; they had control over fire; they lived in shelters; they built broad social networks, sometimes including people they have never even met; they exchanged resources over wide areas; and they created art, music, personal adornment, rituals, and a complex symbolic world. Modern humans have spread to every continent and vastly expanded their numbers. They have altered the world in ways that benefit them greatly. But this transformation has unintended consequences for othe r species as well as for ourselves, creating new survival challenges. Early human beings left Africa over 1 million years ago Humans have incredibly low genetic diversity You may be part Neanderthal The human population crashed about 80,000 years ago Humans navigated the Indian ocean in boats 50,000 years ago Homo sapiens has only had a culture for less than 50,000 years Homo sapiens has always used fire as a tool Homo sapiens is still evolving rapidl
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
5 Ways to Make Your Diversity Workshop a Success Organizing diversity workshops is a challenging undertaking. Whether the event takes place among coworkers, classmates, or community members, the likelihood that tension will arise is high. The point of such a workshop is to help participants understand diversityÃ¢â¬â¢s significance and how to relate to each other more respectfully as a result. To achieve this, sensitive subject matter will be shared, and issues will be raised that not everyone sees eye-to-eye on. Fortunately, you can take several steps to prevent your diversity workshop from flopping. They include setting ground rules, fostering team-building and consulting diversity experts. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s begin with the most basic element of presenting a diversity workshop. Where will it be held? In-House or Off-Site? Where you hold your diversity workshop depends on how comprehensive it will be. Will the program last a couple of hours, all day or longer? The length depends on how much information needs to be given out. Is this the most recent in a series of diversity workshops youÃ¢â¬â¢ve held? Then, perhaps a shorter program is more appropriate. On the other hand, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re presenting the first diversity workshop at your organization, consider planning for the event to take place all day someplace off-site, such as a nearby hotel or lodge in the woods. Holding the workshop in another location will keep peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds off their daily routines and on the task at-hand- diversity. Taking a trip together also creates opportunities for your team to bond, an experience that will be of use when itÃ¢â¬â¢s time to open up and share during the workshop. If finances are an issue or a day-trip just isnÃ¢â¬â¢t feasible for your organization, try holding the workshop somewhere on site thatÃ¢â¬â¢s comfortable, quiet and can accommodate the necessary number of participants. Is this a place where lunch can be servedÃ and attendees can make quick trips to the bathroom? Lastly, if the workshop isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a school-wide or company-wide event, make sure to post signs letting those who arenÃ¢â¬â¢t participating know not to interrupt the sessions. Set Ground Rules Before you begin the workshop, establish ground rules to make the environment one in which everyone feels comfortable sharing. Ground rules donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be complicated and should be limited to about five or six to make them easy to remember. Post the ground rules in a central location so that everyone can see them. To help workshop attendees feel invested in the sessions, include their input when creating ground rules. Below is a list of guidelines to consider during a diversity session. Personal information shared during the workshop remains confidential.No talking over others.Disagree respectfully rather than with put-downs or judgmental criticism.DonÃ¢â¬â¢t give feedback to others unless you are asked specifically to do so.Refrain from making generalizations or invoking stereotypes about groups. Use Ice Breakers to Build Bridges Discussing race, class, and gender isnÃ¢â¬â¢t easy. Many people donÃ¢â¬â¢t discuss these issues among family members, let alone with coworkers or classmates. Help your team ease into these subjects with an ice breaker. The activity can be simple. For example, when introducing themselves, everyone can share a foreign country theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve traveled to or would like to and why. Content Is Crucial Not sure what material to cover during the workshop? Turn to a diversity consultant for advice. Tell the consultant about your organization, the major diversity issues it faces and what you hope to achieve from the workshop. A consultant can came to your organization and facilitate the workshop or coach you on how to lead a diversity session. If your organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s budget is tight, more cost-effective measures include speaking with a consultant by telephone or taking webinars about diversity workshops. Make sure to do your research before hiring a consultant. Find out the consultantÃ¢â¬â¢s areas of expertise. Obtain references and get a client list, if possible. What kind of rapport do the two of you have? Does the consultant have a personality and background that will suit your organization? How to WrapÃ Up End the workshop by allowing attendees to share what theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned. They can do this verbally with the group and individually on paper. Have them complete an evaluation, so you can gauge what worked best about the workshop and what improvements need to be made. Tell the participants how you plan to instill what theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned in the organization, be it a workplace, classroom or community center. Following through on the topics raised will influence attendees to invest in future workshops. In contrast, if the information presented is never touched on again, the sessions may be considered a waste of time. Given this, be sure to engage the ideas brought forth during the workshop as soon as possible.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
An analysis of Edgar Allan Poes Annabel Lee - Research Paper Example This all-encompassing love filled Annabel LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s mind when she was still alive as stated in the line, Ã¢â¬Å"And this maiden she lived with no other thought/ Than to love and be loved by meÃ¢â¬ (Poe, Ã¢â¬Å"Annabel Lee,Ã¢â¬ lines 5-6). The line clearly states that there was nothing else that Annabel Lee thought of other than this love the author had for her. Although this may simply be a mere exaggeration on the part of the poet, still the line emphasizes the greatness of such a love and the idea that this love probably inspired most of Annabel LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s daily life prior to her death. Furthermore, this love shared by Annabel Lee and the poet when the former was still alive was one shared mutually. All that Annabel Lee thought of was Ã¢â¬Å"to love and be lovedÃ¢â¬ by the poet (6), which means that she did want to show him her love but at the same time, she expected him to do the same to her. In short, this love was not one of a sacrifice where only one would love th e other. Moreover, Poe affirms this mutual love when he says, Ã¢â¬Å"But we loved with a love that was more than loveÃ¢â¬ (9). The first mention of the word Ã¢â¬Å"loveÃ¢â¬ was the great love the author believed he and Annabel Lee shared while the second mention of the word Ã¢â¬Å"loveÃ¢â¬ was somehow the kind of mediocre love he believed was shared by other people. Although, in the second stanza, there was a hint of childishness in the love that the poet shared with Annabel Lee for Ã¢â¬Å"I was a child and she was a childÃ¢â¬ (7), Poe assures the reader that this is nothing childish. He specifically counters this argument regarding childish love in the fifth stanza as he says, Ã¢â¬Å"But our love was stronger by far than the love/ Of those who were older than we-/ of many far wiser than we-Ã¢â¬ (27-28). From this line, the reader is made to believe that both the poet and Annabel Lee could love better and so much more than even the old and the wise. Furthermore, it wa s to be proven later on in the poem that indeed this love is something extraordinary and greater than death. This great, all-encompassing love is indeed put to the test when Ã¢â¬Å"A wind blew out of a cloud,/ [and chilled] my beautiful Annabel LeeÃ¢â¬ (15-16). The death is the test of their love, but far from this idea of a test, the poet believes that this is more of a result of envy on the part of fate, represented by the angels: Ã¢â¬Å"The angels, not half so happy in heaven,/ Went envying her and me-Ã¢â¬ (21-22). The envy must have been caused by the great pride both the poet and Annabel Lee shared when it came to their love when the latter was still alive. Nevertheless, although the reader may not be able to distinguish whether the poetÃ¢â¬â¢s love for the dead Annabel Lee is one brought about by pride or true love, it remains clear that his love for someone dead is just all the same as the one when she was still alive. Although there is no more clue as to whether this love is still mutually shared by the poet and the dead Annabel Lee, this love remains to be strong. Poe proves this by stating his convictions in the line, Ã¢â¬Å"And neither the angels in heaven above,/ Nor the demons down under the sea,/ Can ever dissever my soul from the soul/ Of the beautiful Annabel LeeÃ¢â¬ (30-33). The mention of the word Ã¢â¬Å"soulÃ¢â¬ may suggest suicide on the part of the poet but it may
Monday, February 3, 2020
Cyber Security, Cyber Crime and Cyber Forensic - Assignment Example Curbing digital crime can be overwhelming if the agencies involved do not acquire appropriate training for the job. This initiative is likely to be a costly one but since it is bound to ripe digital security then it is a priceless initiative worth taking (Santanam & Sethumadhavan, 2011). Moreover, trained personnel without the necessary equipment for the job are another inhibiting factor to the agenciesÃ¢â¬â¢ efforts to eradicate digital crime. Ill-equipped agencies are likely to underperform since tracking down cybercrimes is likely to be impossible. The independent nature of these agencies limits their access to government support. Agencies need to have certain resources; human resource and capital for smooth operation. These essential resources must be availed to the agency on time so as to avoid disrupting its operation. Therefore the independent nature of these agencies inhibits the acquisition of this vital resource thus undermining their operation (Finklea & Theohary, 2013). The federal government agencies have the mandate to combat computer crimes. This is a well-organized agency which possesses the necessary expertise and efficient technology to combat digital crimes at the national level. The federal agency has thus created special sections within this organization so as to aid in combating this type of crime, these sections include: The secret service Ã¢â¬â this division has been created by the agency to fight computer crimes. It has been mandated to enforce the following responsibilities in relation to computer crime: (1) the section is mandated to identify frauds in financial institutions. (2) Investigation of digitals crimes that concern the federal interest. The department of justice Ã¢â¬â this department is chaired by the attorney general who is charged with the mandate to represent the state in matters that desire a legal approach. He also offers advisory services to the president.Ã
Saturday, January 25, 2020
The significance of preventing accidents In a construction industry Today, most of the top managers, contractors and workers, who work in construction industry, are aware about the significance of preventing accident.( In fact they know that ignoring safety and health can impose a high penalty on a company -large or small. Also individual accident or injury can mean compensation, time off and lost production and what have seemed to be a minor risk becomes a major liability)(safety at work/compiled by Badrie Abdullah/p.iii). Therefore they know the valuable of occupational safety and health management (OSH), although most of the managers havent enough knowledge about OSH. It means that they dont know what the OSH is and how they must use it. In this report I try to investigate different part of OSH management in addition the need for it. Introduction In current years, construction accident rates have decreased as a result of substantial effort by many parties. Increased pressures from OSHA and owners, and increased cost of accidents raised the contractors awareness. In turn, contractors increased safety training and enforcement. These efforts have decline the injury and illness rate from 12.2 in 1993 to 7.9 in 2001. The recent approach to accident prevention is based on OSHAs violations approach and focuses on prescribing and enforcing defenses that is, physical and procedural barriers that reduce the workers exposure to hazards. The violations of the defenses are called unsafe conditions and unsafe behaviors. (Systems Model of Construction Accident Causation /Panagiotis Mitropoulos1; Tariq S. Abdelhamid2; and Gregory A. Howell3.p.12) Only knowing about the benefits of OSH management isnt enough, we must be act and apply it. So at first its important to understand the necessity of OSH management then definition of OSH management and finally how we can follow its rules to make our workplace safe. Who are included in the safety value chain? Maybe, it `s better to ask this question who should be interested in accident causation and safety system? In fact the safety value chain includes students, researchers, technicians, system designers, operators, managers, shareholders, accident investigators and safety inspectors. (Fig.1), all these groups affect to system safety in different time-scale. Educators and researchers play important role in this safety value chain, because educators by teaching safety culture can help students to have awareness before they enter to workplace and they impact on accident prevention in long term. Safety levels Short- term Medium-term Long-term Regulatory Accident investigators, safety inspectors, and regulators (Penalties) Economic (Incentives) Insurers shareholders Organizational/ Managers and company executives Managerial Operational/ Technicians and system designers Maintenance Technical/ Engineers and system designers Design Research researchers and academics Education students Fig 1.safety levers and shareholders in the safety value chain Accident theories based on year: NO Models year 1 Domino Theory Heinrich 1931 2 Multi casual Model Gordon 1941 3 Critical Incident Technique Flanagan 1954 4 Combination of Factors Model Schulzinger 1956 5 Goals Freedom Alertness Theory Kerr 1957 6 Energy Exchange Model Haddon et al 1964 7 Decision Model Surry In Viner 1969 1991a 8 Behavioral Methods Hale Hale Anderson et al 1970 1978 9 Fault Tree Analysis II Meister Hoys Zimolong 1971 1988 10 Error Model Wigglesworth 1972 11 Life Change Unit Model Alkov 1972 12 Hazard Carrier Model Skiba Hoys Zimolong 1973 1988 13 Task-Demand Model Waller Klein 1973 14 Multilinear Events Sequencing Model Banner 1975 15 Systems Safety Analysis Smillie Ayoub 1976 16 Risk Estimation Model Rowe 1977 17 Danger response Model Hale Prusse 1977 18 Incidental Factor Analysis Model Leplat 1978 19 Accident Sequence Model Ramsey Quoted in Sanders McCormick Ramsey 1978 1987 1985 20 Psychological Model Corlett Gilbank 1987 21 Domino/Energy Release Zabetakis, quoted in Heinrich et al 1980 22 Stair Step Model Douglas, quoted in Heinrich et al 1980 23 Motivation Reward Satisfaction Model Petersen, quoted in Heinrich et al 1980 24 Energy Model Ball, quoted in Heinrich et al 1980 25 Systems Model Firenze, quoted in Heinrich et al 1980 26 Epidemiological Model Suchman, quoted in Heinrich et al 1980 27 Updated Domino Model Bird Jr, quoted in Heinrich et al 1980 28 Updated Domino Model Adams, quoted in Heinrich et al 1980 29 Updated Domino Model II Weaver, quoted in Heinrich et al 1980 30 Task Ability Model Drury Brill 1980 31 OARU Model Kjellen Hovden Kjellen Larsson 1981 32 Traffic Conflicts Technique Zimolong 1982 33 Signals Passed at Danger Decision Tree Model Taylor, R. K. and Lucas, D.A in ch.8 of Van Der Schaaf , Lucas Hale 1991 34 Ergonomic Behavioral Methods Kjellen 1984 35 Human Causation Model Mager Pipe 1984 36 Near Accidents Incidents Swain 1985 37 Behavior Model Rasmussen 1986 38 Contributing Factors Model Sanders Shaw 1987 39 Hazard Carrier Model Hayos Zimolong 1988 40 Comet Model Boylston 1990 41 Comprehensive Human Factors Model Dejoy 1990 42 View of Workers on Safety Decisions Model Saari 1990 43 Epidemiological Model Kriebel, quoted in Cone et al 1990 44 Universal Model McClay 1990 45 Federation of Accident Insurance Institution(Finland)Model Seppanen 1997 46 Question Tree Model Hale et al.in Van Der Schaaf, Lucas Hale 1991 47 Occurrence Consequence Process Model Viner 1991b 48 Onward Mappings Model based on Resident Pathogens Metaphor Reason 1991 49 Functional Levels Model Hurst et al 1992 50 Tripod Tree Wheelahan 1994 51 Attribution Theory Model Dejoy 1994 52 Cindynic Hyperspace Kervern 1995 53 Fig.2 Accident theories (Enhancing Occupational Safety and Health, Geofry Taylor, Kellie Easter, Roy Hegney)2004 What is occupational safety and control? The Occupational Safety and Health management is a management which provides the legislative framework to secure the safety, health and welfare among all workforces and to protect others against risks to safety or health in connection with the activities of persons at work.( Job Seeker Handbook/alaysian Labour Law : Regulation of Employment) Occupational health and safety is a discipline with a broad scope involving many specialized fields. In its broadest sense, it should aim at: the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations; the prevention among workers of adverse effects on health caused by their working conditions; The protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health; The placing and maintenance of workers in an occupational environment adapted to physical and mental needs; The adaptation of work to humans. In other words, occupational health and safety encompasses theÃ social, mental and physical well-being of workers that is the whole person. (Website of International Labor organization) What is an accident? It is necessary to define what we mean by the word accident, because before anyone can begin to put up any sort of a flight, he must know his enemy. So we must do the same. An accident is an unplanned event, which could result in injury to persons or in damage to plant and equipment or both. Also accidents are consequent of unplanned (unsafe) acts or unplanned (unsafe) conditions performed or created by people. In fact people cause accidents, by what they do or what they neglect to do and the activity of people, in a factory or any other place of work, are controlled by management. (a safe place of work/D.WB James/p.56) From the linguistic point of view, the word accident is the present participle of the Latin verb accident which means to happen, which in turn is derived from ad- + cadere, meaning to fall. The literal meaning of accident is therefore that of a fall or stumble. The derivation from to fall is significant, since falling is not something one dose on purpose. If someone falls while walking or while climbing, it is decidedly an unexpected and unwanted event. It is, in other words, what we call an accident: an unforeseen and unplanned event, which leads to some sort of loss or injury. Other definitions of accident , such as they can be found in various dictionaries, concur that an accident is an unforeseen and unplanned event or circumstance that (1) happens unpredictably without discernible human intention or observable cause and (2) leads to loss or injury. Used as an adverb, to say that something happens accidently or happens by accident means that it happens by chance. (Barriers and Accident Prevention/Erik Hollnagel p.34/2005) The need for accident models It is a truism that we cannot think about something without having the words and concepts to describe it, or without having some frame of reference. The advantage of having a common frame of reference is that communication and understanding become more efficient, because a number of things can be taken for granted. The frame of reference is particularly important in thinking about accidents, because it determines how we view the role of humans. (Barriers and Accident Prevention/Erik Hollnagel p.4445/2005) Accident causation models: Figure 2.Ã Diagram showing the dominate five perceptions of accident causation (Benner 1975).Ã The single event concept SINGLE EVENT CONCEPT What the first opinion of accident causation is the Single Event Concept. This idea concentrates that a single event caused accident. It means that this simple model is the widest The first perception of accident causation is the single event concept. This concept focuses on the premise that accidents are caused by a single event. This simple model exemplifies the quest for the cause of what occurred. The search for a scapegoat and taking care of the scapegoat would solve the problem. This concept is the most widely perceived and least complex. The public and media typically utilize this concept when they ask what caused the accident?Ã Limitations The single events concept is limited in its ability to see the accident as a process or sequence of events in time. The factors that may contribute to the accident are not identified or pursued due to the fact that the real cause is obvious and visible. Causes that may underline human behavior are rarely determined.Ã Application Current applications are primarily apparent in how the public and media view accidents. This viewpoint is reinforced by findings such as when an airline accident was caused by pilot error. Police citations are another example of the perception.Ã CHAIN OF EVENTS CONCEPT History The chain of events concept or domino theory was originally developed by Heinrich (1941). The basic concept implied that accidents resulted from a sequence of events that led to an accident. Like a row of dominos, once the sequence began each event led to the next until an accident occurred. Intervention at any point along the events sequence could halt the accident process and eliminate the unwanted results. An unsafe act starts the chain of events that began with an unsafe condition.Ã Limitations This concept is limited by the linear progression characteristic of the model. Interactions among events, contributing causes, and the duration and timing of each event limit the identification of all causal factors.Ã Applications The current use of this concept is prevalent in the legal field that attempts to reconstruct the sequence of events that led to the accident.Ã 2.the determinat variable concept 3.the domino theory 4.the fault tree analytical methodology FAULT TREE ANALYSIS Heinrich (1941) developed the methodology that preceded and formed the basis for Fault Tree Analysis. He illustrated the linear sequence of factors in accident causation by using a domino theory. The theory stated that a disturbance that caused any one of the five identified components of the sequence to fail would set off a chain-of-events that led to an accident. The five in the sequence were 1) ancestry and social environment, 2) conditions and fault of person, 3) unsafe act, 4) unsafe condition and 5) injury. He showed that by intervention at any point along the sequence an accident/injury could be prevented. This theory has been modified and updated (Baker 1953, Marcum 1978, Heinrich et al 1980), and has wide applicability in current automobile accident and law enforcement investigations.Ã Similar linear sequence models such as Critical Path Analysis (CPA), Gantt Charts, and Program Evaluation Research Task (PERT), were initially used in the 1950s and 60s as planning tools (Lockyer 1964). Though many names were given to their process they were very similar in their goals and methods. They provided a graphical display of activities linked to events by arrows in order to plan complex projects. The process illustrated a flow (path) from one task sequence to the next and incorporated time frames and interrelationships between tasks. Projects could then be analyzed by task, the amount of time needed for each segment and the relationship a task may have with another task. These methods offered an effective means of project planning, costs analysis, and time frame considerations by visually outlining the task process (Lockyer 1964). These processes also provided the means to better understand the interrelationships between and among tasks. This logical depiction of process fl ow related directly to analyzing an accident sequence and the precursor events.Ã In the 1960s Bell Laboratories expanded upon the linear chain of events concept through missile system safety. They arranged events in a flow chart that used a proceed/follow logic pattern. Their concept, Fault Tree Analysis (Figure 11), is generally credited to Watson (1971). Figure 12 illustrates the fault tree concept as applied to a hypothetical accident where a wildland firefighter was burned. This analysis concept helped provide a sense of management by objectives by identifying unwanted events (the top event) and then systematically and sequentially determining the precursor events. The objective is the top event and the identification of the preceding causal factors aid in the management achievement of that objective. Watsons Fault Tree Analysis investigation methodology provided a visible, easily understood and defendable format (1971). The methodology extended the linear chain of events into a branched events chains concept through the use of and/or logic gates. It uses bas ic Boolean logic in a hierarchical tree format. Other Boolean terms such as not are not used in Fault Tree Analysis. For example, C can only occur when both AÃ andÃ B occur. If two or more events are required for a cause to happen then an and symbol is used. Another possibility is when only one of the factors need be present. For C to occur, then AÃ orÃ B occurred. If only one event of two or more are necessary then an or gate is used. The top event is the unwanted result of the accident and causal factors branch out below leading to it. The downward sequence is continued until the root causes are found or the tree cannot be further developed. This technique, according to Benner (1975), contributed a powerful tool for the investigation of accidents both historical and postulated. Accidents could be investigated or reinvestigated in the search for causal factors utilizing this method. It assisted in illuminating areas that may have previously been overlooked by other means. Numerous approaches to determining accident causal factor using branched events chains reflected the discipline of the investigations employing it; thus medical doctorsÃ used an epidemiological approach (agent/host/environment), while psychologists focused on human factors.Ã Figure 11. Fault Tree diagram illustrating a typical failure process, symbols used,Ã and the logic sequence leading to an undesired event, a dark room (in Ferry 1988). Figure 12. Fault Tree diagram illustrating the deductive process using an example of a sequence of events in which a firefighter receives burns.Ã One key limitation of Fault Tree Analysis is the inability to model time sequences that are concurrent and interactive (Hendrick and Benner 1987). Brown (1993) added that only one event could be analyzed at a time and thus primarily applicable to catastrophic events. Benner (1975) cited similar deficiencies, most notably that charting analysis methods focus on a single undesired event and provided no means to indicate the chronological relationships (and the subsequent concurrent interrelationships) of events. Another limitation is the restriction inherent in the method whereby causes must be either successes or failures and degrees of each are not accounted for (Tulsiani and others 1990).Ã 5.the energy-barriers-targets model Barriers Analysis Barriers Analysis is an accident investigation method that is an additional component of the MORT process. The method identifies barriers/controls that are in place to prevent accidents. These barriers may be physical and/or administrative and must be absent, inadequate, or bypassed in order for the accident to occur. A more detailed account of this approach will be undertaken in the methods section as this method is one of the USDA proposed investigative tools (USDA 1998).Ã 6.the management oversight and risk tree History Traditional accident investigations focused on the active response to a mishap and the identification of procedures to prevent future occurrences. The degree and intensity of the accident dictated the intensity of the investigation response and subsequent preventative action (Brown 1993). But as technology advanced and systems became more complex, the consequences of accidents became increasingly unacceptable to society and industry, particularly in the nuclear power industry. The nuclear industry and similar high-risk technologies have determined that learning from accidents and even near misses was not an option. The consequences of accidents precluded the traditional trial by error approach where as accidents occurred the problem was fixed subsequent to the next mishap (termed the fly-fix-fly approach). A new approach was undertaken to become proactive as well as reactive in accident analysis techniques to determine possible failure points prior to occurrence. Johnson (1973a) work ing for the National Safety Council and under a contract from the US Atomic Energy Commission focused on a systems approach to accident analysis. This approach focused on the entire system in which accidents occurred and the interaction of events within that system. Johnson merged two basic views to focus on management responsibility in planning the context in which accidents occur. These views, understanding the energy release process and focusing management of that hazard on the route of its release, led Johnson to develop the concept of less than adequate management decisions. This progressed to the Management Oversight and Risk Tree (MORT) accident analysis tool. He said MORT was an analytical procedure that provides a disciplined approach for finding the causes and contributing factors of mishaps. It entailed a very broad and detailed checklist that facilitated the search for safety problems. It incorporated 1500 possible causes and 98 generic problems and was the initial metho dology to embody management oversight into accident causation. The Department of Energy currently employs this method as one of its most comprehensive analytical techniques (DOE 1992). It is more generally used as a proactive method in safety system evaluations than as an accident investigation method. This is primarily due to the fact that it can be time consuming and intensive and due to the nature of the nuclear industry, identifying possible loopholes in the safety system to eliminate hazards is more cost effective and publicly expedient than after the accident occurs.Ã This concept was highly visible, easily reviewed and updated as new relevant facts warrant, and provided structure to help reduce overlooked factors and bias. Within the MORT system incidents were defined as inadequate barrier/controls or as failures without consequence. Accidents resulted in adverse consequences. The MORT system incorporated the concept of the unwanted transfer of energy that can cause mishaps due to inadequate barriers/controls. These barriers and controls may be physical (protective clothing, concrete walls, etc) or administrative (codes, standards and regulations). The MORT system is based on two main sources of accidental losses: 1) specific job oversights and omissions and 2) the management system factors that control the job (Johnson 1973a). A third source he mentioned was assumed risk. Johnson noted that once this source was properly evaluated it could not be considered accidental in nature since we have consciously decided to accept the risk. Integral aspect s of the MORT process are Fault Tree Analysis, Barriers Analysis and Event and Causal Factors Charting. Each of these approaches will be subsequently explained.Ã Limitations Limitations of MORT are that it can be insufficient in finding specific causes as it designed to identify general causal areas (Gertman and Blackman 1994). These authors do recognize its strengths in identifying more specific control and managerial factors. Moreover, this systematic process is advantageous when system experts are not available.Ã Application Its current use as a proactive safety system analysis tool for the Department of Energy has long standing (Briscoe 1990). It has been used exclusively as both a proactive technique and an accident investigation method for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.Ã 7.petersen`s multiple causation model 8.reason`s swiss chess model of human error 1990 Reasons Swiss Cheese Model of Human Error One particularly appealing approach to the genesis of human error is the one proposed by James Reason (1990). Generally referred to as the Swiss cheese model of human error, Reason describes four levels of human failure, each influencing the next (Figure 1). Working backwards in time from the accident, the first level depicts thoseÃ Unsafe ActsÃ of Operators that ultimately led to the accident. More commonly referred to in aviation as aircrew/pilot error, this level is where most accident investigations have focused their efforts and consequently, where most causal factors are uncovered. After all, it is typically the actions or inactions of aircrew that are directly linked to the accident. For instance, failing to properly scan the aircrafts instruments while in instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) or penetrating IMC when authorized only for visual meteorological conditions (VMC) may yield relatively immediate, and potentially grave, consequences. Represented as holes i n the cheese, these active failures are typically the last unsafe acts committed by aircrew. Ã Reasons original work involved operators of a nuclear power plant. However, for the purposes of this manuscript, the operators here refer to aircrew, maintainers, supervisors and other humans involved in aviation. However, what makes the Swiss cheese model particularly useful in accident investigation, is that it forces investigators to address latent failures within the causal sequence of events as well. As their name suggests, latent failures, unlike their active counterparts, may lie dormant or undetected for hours, days, weeks, or even longer, until one day they adversely affect the unsuspecting aircrew. Consequently, they may be overlooked by investigators with even the best intentions. Within this concept of latent failures, Reason described three more levels of human failure. The first involves the condition of the aircrew as it affects performance. Referred to asPreconditions for Unsafe Acts, this level involves conditions such as mental fatigue and poor communication and coordination practices, often referred to as crew resource management (CRM). Not surprising, if fatigued aircrew fail to communicate and coordinate their activities with others in the cockpit or individuals external to the aircraft (e.g., air traffic control, maintenance, etc.), poor decisions are made and errors often result. Figure 1. The Swiss cheese model of human error causation (adapted from Reason, 1990). But exactly why did communication and coordination break down in the first place? This is perhaps where Reasons work departed from more traditional approaches to human error. In many instances, the breakdown in good CRM practices can be traced back to instances ofÃ Unsafe Supervision, the third level of human failure. If, for example, two inexperienced (and perhaps even below average pilots) are paired with each other and sent on a flight into known adverse weather at night, is anyone really surprised by a tragic outcome? To make matters worse, if this questionable manning practice is coupled with the lack of quality CRM training, the potential for miscommunication and ultimately, aircrew errors, is magnified. In a sense then, the crew was set up for failure as crew coordination and ultimately performance would be compromised. This is not to lessen the role played by the aircrew, only that intervention and mitigation strategies might lie higher within the system. Reasons model didnt stop at the supervisory level either; the organization itself can impact performance at all levels. For instance, in times of fiscal austerity, funding is often cut, and as a result, training and flight time are curtailed. Consequently, supervisors are often left with no alternative but to task non-proficient aviators with complex tasks. Not surprisingly then, in the absence of good CRM training, communication and coordination failures will begin to appear as will a myriad of other preconditions, all of which will affect performance and elicit aircrew errors. Therefore, it makes sense that, if the accident rate is going to be reduced beyond current levels, investigators and analysts alike must examine the accident sequence in its entirety and expand it beyond the cockpit. Ultimately, causal factors at all levels within the organization must be addressed if any accident investigation and prevention system is going to succeed. In many ways, Reasons Swiss cheese model of accident causation has revolutionized common views of accident causation. Unfortunately, however, it is simply a theory with few details on how to apply it in a real-world setting. In other words, the theory never defines what the holes in the cheese really are, at least within the context of everyday operations. Ultimately, one needs to know what these system failures or holes are, so that they can be identified during accident investigations or better yet, detected and corrected before an accident occurs. The balance of this paper will attempt to describe the holes in the cheese. However, rather than attempt to define the holes using esoteric theories with little or no practical applicability, the original framework (called theÃ Taxonomy of Unsafe Operations) was developed using over 300 Naval aviation accidents obtained from the U.S. Naval Safety Center (Shappell Wiegmann, 1997a). The original taxonomy has since been refined using input and data from other military (U.S. Army Safety Center and the U.S. Air Force Safety Center) and civilian organizations (National Transportation Safety Board and the Federal Aviation Administration). The result was the development of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). 1.2. Accident investigation methods During the last decades, a number of methods for accident investigation have been developed and described in the literature.The selection of methods for the needs of our study was made on the basis that they are described in the literature, they show the evolution of accident investigation over time and they are either widely used or recently developed. Based on these criteria, the following methods were selected: 1.2.1. Fault tree analysis (FTA) FTA was developed in the early 1960s by the Bell Laboratories (Ferry, 1988). In FTA, an undesired event (an accident) is selected and all the possible things that can contribute to the event are diagrammed as a tree in order to show logical connections and causes leading to a specified accident. FTA is more an analytical tool for establishing relations; it does not give the i
Friday, January 17, 2020
In this soccer essay we will discuss soccer. Soccer (also called football) is the most popular kind of sports in the world. It is more than 2000 years old. Other sources say it is more than 3000 years old. The earliest forms of soccer existed in 1004 B. C. in Japan and in 50 B. C. in China. Japanese kicked a small round ball. Chinese filled heir leather ball with hair. It is known that Romans played a game that was similar to soccer. However, English Kings and Queens did not favor the game. In the UK, it was forbidden for many centuries until the beginning of the 19th century.Soccer essayIn such articles as this one, you must offer all basic information about the subject, explain the rules if it is a game and look back into history of the subject. However, it is not enough to write a good paper. You need to know the rules of writing such papers. Our online service can help you with your writing and provide you with essays of the highest quality. Like every game, soccer has rules. Now , in the soccer essay, we will discuss the rules. The game is played by two teams in a big field covered with grass. Each team consists of eleven players.Their object is to score the ball into the opponentÃ¢â¬â¢s goal. The rules are not difficult. The main rule states that it is forbidden to touch the ball with hands or arms (only the goalie can do it, he defends the goal). Also, players of different teams must not push or hit each other. The game is judged by the referee. There are goals at the opposite ends of the soccer field. The field has a goal box and a penalty box. Soccer playersÃ¢â¬â¢ uniform consists of team jersey, shorts, socks, cleats, and shin guards. Every team has uniforms of different colors.Usually, the colors represent the country they play for. The World Cup is the most famous soccer championship. It is held every four years. Teams from many countries of the world compete with each other, and millions of people around the world watch the game on television at that time. It is a very competitive kind of sports that is why it is interesting to watch it. Soccer is popular with children as well. Boys around the world play soccer at their free time. This game is healthy because it involves much running. Nonetheless, it causes traumas sometimes.Soccer has simple rules; however, it is a difficult game. It is a highly strategic game that requires logical thinking, quick reaction and endurance as it is necessary to run without a rest for a long time. Players have different roles in the team. There are forwards who attack and score goals. There are defenders who help to defend the goal. The goalkeeper can touch the ball inside the goalieÃ¢â¬â¢s box. In this soccer essay, we discussed the game of soccer, presented basic information about it and explained its rules. Also, we considered the history of this most popular game in the world.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1198 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/07/30 Category Music Essay Level High school Tags: Jazz Essay Did you like this example? Psychosis is a mental disorder. It occurs when the mental disorder gets too severe in which emotions and thoughts are very impaired. This causes a person to lose contact with external reality. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Jolly Jazz" essay for you Create order Doctors refer psychosis as a symptom not an illness. It can also cause delusions and hallucinations and severe major mental illnesses. The causes of psychosis may be attributed to the following conditions: physical sickness, abuse of substance, severe stress of trauma or even mental illness. Psychosis is categorized in to two, namely: organic and functional psychosis. The abnormal brain functioning that is induced to a person due to physical abnormality. It is mainly caused by the organic diseases in the brain. While those that are characterized by hallucinations and delusions are brought about by psychiatric related disorders are known as functioning psychosis. The essay below will show how psychosis relates to crime. Could psychosis cause a person to commit crime? And if so to what extent is it analyzed and measured? Is it an acceptable defense for a person to commit crime? According to a research carried out by the Clinical Psychological Science and the University of California shows that psychosis and crime are not strongly linked. They used secondary data from the MacArthur Risk Assessment Study. The MacArthur was a study that included over 1000 violent crime felons. It was carried out approximately 10 weeks after they had come from jail. The offenders were classified according to the level of violent crime they had committed. Some of these crimes include causing physical injury to person, use of weapon, aggravated assault by use of weapon and sexual assault. It also considered the participants other personal disorders and traits, the behavioral pattern of a person and finally cognitive abilities that may be exhibited in their behavior. MacArthur data showed that ten percentages of the offenders committed fifty percent of the crimes reported. This first proved that crimes are committed by repeat offenders. Of the repeat offenders of these crimes half were diagnosed with symptoms of psychosis which included hallucinations and delusions. This report shows that the bond between the psychosis and crime committed was very weak. The percentage of the repeat offenders that had experienced psychotic symptoms before committing the crime was eighty five percent whereas the percentage of those who had not experienced psychotic symptoms was fifteen. Those that had experienced psychotic symptoms were likely to have experienced schizophrenia and bipolar disorders accompanied by other mental disorders. Those that had not experienced psychotic symptoms often had antisocial tendencies, and low sense of verbal intelligence. Historically psychosis was the alleged to be the main cause of crime. People are instilled with fear of psychotic people due to the relation of condition with violence and crime. One of the reasons that make the relation of psychosis to crime and violent behavior is because like most physical illness, psychosis causes inability to act aggressively or in any criminal way. It is only in few conditions that and a person is unable to act sanely. These conditions include paranoid schizophrenia which causes persecution thoughts in these people. This condition is often caused by the side effects of drugs such as amphetamines and also alcohol. When alcohol is abused over time it may cause the person to be violent over time. Another condition is epilepsy but a rare kind. This form of epilepsy acts as an organic illness that may cause a person to harm others indiscriminately. Those that may cause murderous and sadistic acts are the sexual deviant persons. But this condition is very rare. This kind of condition was linked back to the island of the South Pacific. A person is judged by the following factors in order to estimate the potential of a violent crime. One is the previous acts of violence in the persons history through the persons records. It is prove that the more violent and frequent a persons past is the more likely it is for the person to be violent again. Defects in personality manifest themselves such as wanton destructiveness and cruelty and at some point may cause the person to willful injure others. Secondly is the detection and analysis of menacing behavior. This is lack of impulse control resulting in the person striking at out anyone when aggravated. They may punch walls, break valuables such as furniture and even cause more destructive harm on property. These kinds of persons exhibit particular signs so as to be identified as potential crime offenders. These signs include threatening of others, losing control, shouting and quarreling a lot. Thirdly is the trail of activities that involve engaging in places that crimes and violent encounters occur. Such places may include rioting mobs and bars. These places are characterized by violence and lack of respect of laws and rules. This may also be attributed to the persons family. For instance if the family is occasionally fighting and vices such as theft are tolerated. The treatment psychotic symptoms are not only based on drugs but on counseling. A therapist must be assigned to the offender in this case it might be a lawyer, parole officer or even a family member. The goal of this is to ensure that offender does not strike out emotions but verbally express them to the therapist. The person creates a bond with the therapist where they can openly discuss the patients crime and violent activity. One of the main principles of handling someone is ensure that the person does not cause harm to self or to even other people. The law enforcement officers should also be keen and alert and stop these kinds of activities from happening. Crime and violent behavior should to be overlooked and should be handled in the right way by assessing and controlling. The research on the relationship between crime and psychosis has not yet been saturated completely. The government and other institutions should offer support by resources allocation to researchers and institutes that aim to research more on the psychosis condition. The government should also educate people on the psychosis topic and advice against discrimination of people experiencing psychosis symptoms not rather support them and help them. More institutions for supporting people with psychosis should be increased since the number is also getting bigger. Campaigns and charity should be encouraged in order to motivate those suffering privately to feel accepted and also free with people. People should be made aware that psychosis is not a condition rather but a symptom. People should also be advised against alcohol and drug abuse since it can cause one to be violent and commit crimes. Families especially the parents should be encouraged to teach good moral values to children and act as good role models to the children and being against all vices such as violence and theft. Conclusion It is clear that psychosis crimes relationship has a very weak bond. People who often engage in crime are not mostly affected by psychosis. People with psychosis therefore should not be judged and discriminated on being violent and criminals. When a person commits a crime and use the psychosis excuse as a defense, experts in psychology should be incorporated in order to analyze and evaluate these persons.